Introduction

High blood pressure (Hypertension) is a significant risk factor for the development and worsening of many complications of Diabetes Mellitus, including Diabetic Retinpathy leading to diminished vision, brain, heart and kidney disease. It affects up to 60% of individuals with diabetes Mellitus.
Having Diabetes Mellitus increases your risk of developing High blood pressure (Hypertension) and other cardiovascular problems, because If you have diabetes chances of developing high blood pressure also increase. Atherosclerosis(abnormal thickeningof blood vessel wall) can cause High blood pressure (Hypertension), which if not managed, can cause arterial damage, heart failure, Myocardial infarction, Angina, kidney failure, stroke. In fact, a person with diabetes and high blood pressure is four times as likely to develop heart disease than someone who does not have either of the condition.

Why is it important to treat high blood pressure?
High blood pressure increases the risk of coronary heart disease (which leads to heart attack) and stroke, especially when it's present with other risk factors, such as diabetes. When a person has high blood pressure and diabetes, a common combination, their risk for cardiovascular disease doubles.

What Should Blood Pressure Be if You Have diabetes Mellitus?
In general your blood pressure should not go above 130/80. Care should be taken so that BP is within bounds.
If you want to prevent diabetes complications, then you should control your blood pressure strictly. Having a normal blood pressure is as significant to managing diabetes Mellitus as having good control of your blood sugars when it comes to preventing diabetes Mellitus complications.

What Are the Symptoms of High blood pressure (Hypertension)?
In most cases high blood pressure (Hypertension) has no symptoms. That's why it's so significant to have your blood pressure checked on a regular basis (during all visits with your doctor) and to follow your doctor's recommendations on home blood pressure measurement.


How Is High blood pressure (Hypertension) Treated in Diabetic patients?
Treatment includes a change in lifestyle risk factors where these can be improved - losing weight if you are overweight, regular physical activity, a healthy diet, , stopping alcohol & smoking, and a low salt intake. If needed, medication can lower blood pressure. ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors and ARBs are a group of medications that are often used to treat high blood pressure in individuals with diabetes Mellitus. Although other High blood pressure (Hypertension) drugs are available, ACE inhibitors have been shown to not only to be a useful drug to manage High blood pressure (Hypertension), but it has been shown to prevent or delay the progression of kidney disease in individuals with diabetes Mellitus as these drugs prevent excreation of protein in urine. ARBs -- These medications keep the blood vessels open and relaxed to help lower blood pressure. Like ACE inhibitors, ARBs protect your kidneys.


Keep in mind that some blood pressure drugs may adversely affect your blood sugar level. Blood pressure drugs can also cause impotence like beta blockers. Diuretics are also used to treat blood pressure in diabetic patients specially elderly individuals. As adequate control of blood pressure usually requires more than one drug, most health care providers use ACE inhibitors first then add other anti-hypertension drugs like diuretics.

11 FAQ about High Blood Pressure

Answers to your frequently asked questions about high blood pressure, in medical terminology called as hypertension.

1. What are Causes of High Blood Pressure?
Specially in essential hypertension we dont see any cause of high blood pressure, however a variety of conditions -- such as getting little or no exercise, poor diet, obesity, older age, and genetics can lead to high blood pressure.

2. What Is Diastolic and systolic Blood Pressure?
Normally, the blood pressure reading is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is written as systolic pressure, the force of the blood against the artery walls as your heart beats or contracts, over diastolic pressure, when the heart relaxes. For example, a blood pressure reading is written as 13/80 mm Hg, or "130 over 80". The systolic pressure is 130 and the diastolic pressure is 80.

3. What Is a Normal Blood Pressure value?
* "Normal" blood pressure is systolic pressure less than 120 and diastolic pressure less than 80. mmHg
* "Prehigh blood pressure" is systolic pressure of 120-139 or diastolic pressure of 80-89. mmHg
* Stage 1 high blood pressure is blood pressure greater than systolic pressure of 140-159 or diastolic pressure of 90-99 mmHg or greater.
* Stage 2 high blood pressure is systolic pressure of 160 or greater or diastolic pressure of 100 or greater.


4. What Health Complications are Associated With high blood pressure?
* Atherosclerosis: a disease of the arteries caused by a buildup of plaque, or fatty material, on the inside walls ( Endothelium )of the blood vessels . high blood pressure contributes to this buildup by putting added stress and force on the artery walls causing endothelial injury.
* Stroke CVA or Transient Ischaemic attacks: high blood pressure can lead to stroke, either by contributing to the process of atherosclerosis (which can lead to blockages and/or clots), or by weakening the blood vessel wall and causing it to rupture called as cerebral haemmorhage.
* Eye Disease: high blood pressure can damage the very small blood vessels in the retina.
* Heart Disease: High bllod pressure is most common cause of left heart failure. heart failure (the heart can't adequately pump blood), ischemic heart disease (the heart tissue doesn't get enough blood), and hypertensive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (enlarged heart) are all associated with high blood pressure.
* Kidney Disease: high blood pressure can damage the blood vessels and filters in the kidneys, so that the kidneys cannot excrete waste properly.

5. How Do I Know if I Have high blood pressure?
high blood pressure often doesn't have any symptoms that is why called as silent killer, so you usually don't feel it. For that reason, high blood pressure is usually diagnosed by a health care professional on a routine medical checkup. This is especially important if you have a close relative who has high blood pressure or embody risk factors for it. If your blood pressure is extremely high which is also called as Malignant hypertension, you may have unusually strong headaches, chest pain, and heart failure, or signs and symptoms of strok like paralysis or numbness of arm or feet (especially difficulty breathing and poor exercise tolerance). If you have any of these symptoms, seek treatment immediately.

6. How Is High blood pressure Treated naturally?
High blood pressure treatment usually involves making lifestyle modifications and, if necessary, drug therapy.
Following Lifestyle changes can control blood pressure naturally

* Regular exercise (such as brisk walking for half hour atleast).
* Limiting alcohol drinking.
* Losing weight.
* Quitting smoking.
* Eating a healthy diet, such as the DASH diet.
* Reducing the amount of salt in your diet.

7-What are common medicine for high blood pressure
High blood pressure medications include
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
angiotensin receptor blockers ARBs
diuretics
beta-blockers
calcium channel blockers.

8. What Are the Side Effects of High blood pressure Medications?
As is true with any medication, High blood pressure medications have also side effects. Among the most common are the following:

* Calcium channel blockers: dizziness, trouble breathing, heart rhythm problems palpitation, ankle swelling, constipation.
* Beta-blockers: dizziness or lightheadedness, decreased sexual ability, drowsiness, low heart rate (Bradycardia).
* Diuretics: headache, weakness, joint or muscle pain, low potassium blood levels.
* ACE inhibitors: dry and persistent cough, headache, diarrhea, high potassium blood levels.
* Angiotensin receptor blockers: fatigue, dizziness or fainting, muscle pain, diarrhea.

9. What Type of Diet Should I Follow if I Have High blood pressure?
A healthy diet, such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop High blood pressure) diet, is very effective at lowering high blood pressure. The DASH diet calls for a certain number of daily servings from various food groups, including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
The following steps can also help:

* Eating less red meat and sweets
* Eating foods that are high in magnesium, potassium, and calcium
* Eating more fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods
* Eating less of foods that are high in saturated fat and cholesterol, such as fried foods
* Eating more whole grain products, fish, poultry, and nuts

10. When Should I Call My Doctor?
If you are diagnosed with High blood pressure, it's important to consult your doctor on a regular basis. He can answer your questions during these medical checkup sessions.

However, there may be other times when you may need to speak to your physician like:
* If you are having any side effects from the blood pressure medication. If this happens, your doctor may wish to adjust the dosage of the medication or put you on another medication.
* If you aren't responding to the prescribed treatment and your blood pressure is still high.

11. Are There any Medications that Cause High blood pressure?
Some medications that you take for another condition may cause High blood pressure. These include birth control pills , migraine medications, cyclosporine and erythropoietin, amphetamines, Ritalin, corticosteroids, hormones, NSAIDs like brufen. Also, many over-the-counter medications (for example, allergy, cold and asthma medications and appetite suppressants) can cause High blood pressure.

Just remember, Don't stop taking any prescribed medication, including antihypertensive medication, on your own without talking to your.

What is high blood pressure?


High blood pressure (HBP) or hypertension means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Arteries are vessels that carry blood from the pumping heart to all the tissues and organs of the body. Normal blood pressure is below 120/80; blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89 is called "pre-hypertension", and a blood pressure of 140/90 or above is considered high.

The top number, the systolic blood pressure, corresponds to the pressure in the arteries as the heart contracts and pumps blood forward into the arteries. The bottom number, the diastolic pressure, represents the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes after the contraction. The diastolic pressure reflects the lowest pressure to which the arteries are exposed.

An elevation of the systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure increases the risk of developing heart (cardiac) disease, kidney (renal) disease, hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis), eye damage, and stroke (brain damage). These complications of hypertension are often referred to as end-organ damage because damage to these organs is the end result of chronic (long duration) high blood pressure. For that reason, the diagnosis of high blood pressure is important so efforts can be made to normalize blood pressure and prevent complications.

It was previously thought that rises in diastolic blood pressure were a more important risk factor than systolic elevations, but it is now known that in people 50 years or older systolic hypertension represents a greater risk.

The American Heart Association estimates high blood pressure affects approximately one in three adults in the United States - 73 million people. such rampant is the problem in the world of ours...

Correct timing to drink water

Water is essential for the survival of all organisms.water has always been an important and life-sustaining drink to humans. Civilizations have risen and fallen on and for the banks of the rivers. The ruins of the worlds moct ancient civilizations the Egyptian, the Mesapotamian, the Chinese and the Indus valley were on river beds. Was have been and are being fought for it,so is it a necessary topic for discussion in international summits. The importance of water can be seen from the fact that we can live without food for a few weeks but only for a few days without water!
Drinking a lot of water is definitely a healthy way to live your life. Guyton's Textbook of Medical Physiology (a standard reference book) states that "the total amount of water in a man of average weight (70 kilograms) is approximately 40 liters, averaging 57 percent of his total body weight. In a newborn infant, this body water may be as high as 75 percent of the body weight. and decreases as the age progresses. There is also a difference among males and females. 60% water in adult males and 55% in adult females is made up of water.
The exact amount of water a man needs is highly individual, and depends on the condition of the person, the amount of work and physical exercise that he/she does and on the environmental temperature and humidity of that region. In the US and other temperate regions the required intake of water  is 3.7 litres per day for  males older than 18, and 2.7 litres for females. People in hotter climates will require greater water intake. An individual's thirst provides a better guide for the amount of water they require rather than any specific/ fixed  number. An insufficiency of water results in an increased osmolarity in the extracellular fluid (most sensitive fluid comartment in body. This is sensed by osmoreceptors in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, which trigger thirst. A more flexible guideline is that a normal person should urinate 4 times per day, and the urine should be a light yellow color.

Obesity decreases the body stores of water to about 40%. This is because of the lowered capacity of the fat containing cells in the body called adipose cells to store water. thus the more obese you are the more water is needed to keep you healthy.
The water storage capacity if different tissues is as follows. Muscle tissue - 75% water by weight. , body fat - 10% water and bone - 22% water. Blood contains almost 70% water.
In the normal resting state, input of water through ingested fluids is approximately 1200 ml/day, from ingested foods 1000 ml/day and from metabolism 300 ml/day, totaling 2500 ml/day
So is there a specific timing to drink this water?
Although ther is nodefinite indication for timing of water various studies have shown the following facts.
-Two glasses of water 30 min. before meal will aid in digestion.
-one glass in the early morning after you wake up helps activate internal organs
-One glass before sleephelps avoid stroke or heart attack at midnight.
-One glass after bath helps lower blood pressure.

People who drink enough water not only avoid the pitfalls of dehydration, they accelerate their metabolisms and help prevent overeating. Hence an easier way to loose weight is to have 2 glasses of water 1/2 hour before each meal. The additional advantages of appropriate water intake are-
*Lowered risk of bladder cancer by half for those who drink six or more glasses per day

*Cut heart attack risk nearly in half for those who drink five or more glasses per day
*Reduced risk of a woman to develop breast cancer by up to 79 percent
*Decrease one's chance for colon cancer for those who drink four or more glasses per day
Water is also believed to postpoen the ageing process!

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